"The Eyes of Heisenberg" by Frank Herbert (1966)
"The Eyes of Heisenberg" is one of Frank Herbert's better novels, though I'm sure it went over most people's heads at the time. The first few chapters go into such detail with regard to enzymes, gene splicing, and fetal development that most people who tried to read it back in 1966 probably gave up after the first few pages. This is too bad, because "The Eyes of Heisenberg" is actually a fast-paced, well-written piece of science fiction.
At some point in the future, a group of "Optimen" perpetuate their existence for thousands of years through genetic engineering and enzymatic manipulation. These Optimen rule over a large population of sterile citizens, and also a few select citizens who are allowed to breed. In the background looms a secret society of cyborgs, which attempts to overthrow the Optimen by sabotaging their breeding program.
It's a great book, though a bit harder to find than some of Frank Herbert's other novels. A lot of the genetic thinking that went into the Dune novels originated here, and there are a lot of other parallels to be drawn between this novel, "Dune", "Dune Messiah", and especially "God Emperor of Dune."
I also love the fact that it's set in the futuristic city of Seatac, and even mentions places such as Grand Coulee and La Push. Washingtonians - Frank Herbert had your back!